Ancient polyploidization predating divergence of the cereals dating site for us

Duplicated genes can be identified through sequence homology on the DNA or protein level.

Paleopolyploidy can be identified as massive gene duplication at one time using a molecular clock.

Such an event could either double the genome of a single species (autopolyploidy) or combine those of two species (allopolyploidy).

Because of functional redundancy, genes are rapidly silenced or lost from the duplicated genomes.

Many eudicot species have experienced additional whole genome duplications or triplications.

For example, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the first plant to have its entire genome sequenced, has experienced at least two additional rounds of whole genome duplication since the duplication shared by the core eudicots..

Other examples include the sequenced eudicot genomes of apple, soybean, tomato, cotton, etc.

Compared with plants, paleopolyploidy is much rarer in the animal kingdom.

baker's yeast, Paleopolyploidy is extensively studied in plant lineages. The authors declare no competing financial interests. Paleopolyploidy is the result of genome duplications which occurred at least several million years ago (MYA).It has been found that almost all flowering plants have undergone at least one round of genome duplication at some point during their evolutionary history.Ancient genome duplications are also found in the early ancestor of vertebrates (which includes the human lineage) and another near the origin of the bony fishes.

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Thus, paleopolyploidy is identified as a "peak" on the duplicate number vs. Duplication events that occurred a long time ago in the history of various evolutionary lineages can be difficult to detect because of subsequent diploidization (such that a polyploid starts to behave cytogenetically as a diploid over time) as mutations and gene translations gradually make one copy of each chromosome unlike its counterpart.

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